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Project List » Archaeometallurgical studies on Dacian Gold and Dacian Silver using advanced X-Ray spectrometric techniques

Archaeometallurgical studies on Dacian Gold and Dacian Silver using advanced X-Ray spectrometric techniques
proiecte.nipne.ro/pn2/156-projects.html


Acronym: DacianGoldSilver
Contracting Authority: Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI)
Number / Date of the contract: PCE-2011-3-78 contract 48/2011 / 2011-10-05
Idei exploratorii
Project Manager: Bogdan Constantinescu
Partners:
Starting date / finishing date: 2011-10-01 / 2015-10-01
Project value: 1500000 RON
Abstract: We intend to perform, using advanced spectrometric techniques (XRF, micro-PIXE, micro-SRXRF, LA-ICPMS) compositional analyses - elemental, layers structure (e.g. gilding, silvering), micro-inclusions (PGE elements, Sn, Sb, Te, Pb etc in gold samples) - on ancient (Geto-Dacian, Geto-Thracian, Greek - classical, Hellenistic, Roman) gold and silver objects ("kosons" and Geto-Dacian silver coins included) from Romanian Museums, mainly unique artifacts from Romanian cultural heritage patrimony which were never investigated up to now. The obtained information will provide essential clues for provenance-authentication studies of the objects: gold origin (alluvial, primary, geological deposits), refining and alloying; silver origin (mines, metallurgical obtaining), alloying; gilding - silvering procedures; modern and contemporary forgeries. Political, commercial, military aspects - goldsmiths and minting workshops, trade routes, payments, looting and significance (spiritual or material) of gold and silver objects can be also cleared by such compositional analyses, allowing a better understanding of this key-period in our history. The project will consolidate the Romanian archaeometallurgy network, involving the participation of Horia Hulubei National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, National History Museum of Romania, Institute of Archaeology "Vasile Parvan", Bucharest University, National History Museum of Transylvania, Bucharest University, other Romanian Museums.

Objectives: 1.Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of the Extra-Carpathian Geto-Dacian (Thracian) gold and gilded silver objects - princely hoards and remarkable isolated discoveries - Cucuteni-Baiceni, Stancesti, Bunest-Averesti, Poiana-Cotzofenesti, Agighiol, Peretu, Craiova, Poroina, Popesti-Arges, Poiana-Galatzi (1, 2, 3, 4)
- comparative analysis for Greek (classic, Hellenistic) gold objects from Dobroudja
- comparison with published data on Thracian, Greek, Scythian, Celtic gold objects
- provenance studies for gold as metal (alluvial, primary - mining regions), gold metallurgy (refining, alloying)
- political, commercial, military aspects: goldsmith's workshops, trade routes, payments, looting, etc
2. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of the Dacian (from Transylvania) gold objects - new recovered spiraled bracelets, Capalna necklace and ear-rings (5, 6, 7)
- comparison with published data on Thracian, Hellenistic, Celtic, Roman gold objects
- provenance studies for gold as metal (alluvial, primary - mining regions), gold metallurgy (refining, alloying) - special investigation on geological native gold samples from Valea Pianului and Brad-Rosia Montana auriferous placers and deposits
- metallurgical aspects: refining, goldsmith's workshops, significance of Gold items for Dacians
3. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of the Dacian staters type "Koson" - old collections, Tarsa-Luncani hoard, September 2009 hoard, new recoveries) (8, 9, 10)
- comparative analysis with pseudo-Lysimachus staters recovered from Sarmizegetusa area and from Romanian collections, Macedonian staters (Alexander, Lysimachus), Roman aureii
- Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of the Dacian silver drachms type "Koson" and "Macedonia Prima - Droueis" recovered from Sarmizegetusa area
- provenance studies for gold as metal (alluvial, primary), refining, alloying
- political, commercial, military aspects: goldsmith's workshops, trade routes, payments, looting, etc
4. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of Geto-Dacian silver coins types - Extra-Carpathian (Husi-Vovriesti, Prundu-Jiblea, Ocnitza-Carbunesti, Dumbraveni, Adancata-Manastirea, Varteju, Aninoasa-Dobresti), Transylvanian (Criseni-Berchies, Radulesti-Hunedoara, Petelea, Toc-Cherelus) - (11, 12, 13)
- comparative analysis with Thassos (original and imitations) and Macedonia Prima tetradrachms, Apollonia-Dyrhachium drachms, Celtic drachms, Roman Republican denarii from Romanian collections; plated and silvered forgeries (14, 15, 16)
- the question of "Roman denarii type" Geto-Dacian coinage - it is possible to use archeo-metallurgical studies to demonstrate it?
- provenance studies for silver, metallurgical aspects - alloying, especially with bronze and tin
- political, commercial, military aspects: minting workshops, trade routes, payments, looting
- significance of the Geto-Dacian coinage - are these coins real money?
5. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of the Dacian silver adornments and toreutics - hoards and discoveries from Lupu, Saracasau, Sancraieni, Tilisca, Stancutza, Poiana-Gorj, Coada Malului, Herastrau, Piatra Craivii; brooches (fibulae) and torques-s recovered from Sarmizegetusa area and from MNIT Cluj-Napoca (Cojocna, Gherla, etc) (17, 18, 19)
- comparison with published data on Thracian, Greek, Celtic, Roman silver objects
- provenance studies for silver, metallurgical aspects - alloying, especially with bronze and tin
- are the Dacian silver objects locally produced from coins melting, from silver minerals, or imported?


THE STAGES OF THE PROJECT AND DELIVERY DATES
1. Information synthesis of literature data on Geto-Dacian gold and silver artifacts (2011-12-15) Results
2. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of Dacian gold artifacts found in Transylvania (2012-12-15) Results
3. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of Dacian gold and silver artifacts found in extra-Carpathian space (2013-12-15) Results
4. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of Dacian Koson-type gold and silver coins (2014-12-15) Results
5. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of Geto-Dacian silver coins (2015-12-15) Results
6. Archaeo-metallurgical characterization of Geto-Dacian silver adornments  (2016-10-01) Results
RESULTS
PUBLISHED ARTICLES
RESEARCH TEAM


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